Chapter 13: Instructional Materials


Components of a Basal:

  • Emergent Literacy: Introduction to reading and how it works. A thematic approach geared towards developing basic concepts in language, letter-sound relationships, sense of context, following directions, and listening comprehension.
  • Beginning Reading: Sight words and high-frequency sight words grow. Experience charts to grow word recognition.
  • Strategy Lessons: Individual or group work to promote sight vocabulary, phonics, structural analysis, and use of context.
  • Comprehension Strand: Stressed through pre-reading, during reading, and postreading.
  • Language Arts: Creating a literacy environment by integrating reading, writing, listening, and speaking at each grade level is promoted; some programs outline, in lesson format, strategies to merge the language arts.
  • Management: Systematic instruction of reading or language arts programs provides teachers with goals and objectives along with teaching plans and assessment tools, all toward the outcome of documenting individual students and class progress.
  • Assessment: Many formal and informal assessment to gauge teachers instructional decisions and student’s understanding.
  • Differentiation: Intervention for students who need additional support. Small group workshops and technology may be used. RTI.

Lesson Framework of a Lesson in a Basal:

  • Motivating and Background Building –
    • Predicting – based on title, pictures, and background knowledge – what the story might be about.
    • Teacher think-alouds to model prediction, set purposes, and share prior knowledge.
    • Discussion of the pronunciation and meaning of new words; review of words previously taught.
    • Location of geographic setting, if important (map and globe skills).
    • Development of time concepts.
    • Review of important reading skills needed for doing the lesson.
  • Guided Reading (Silent and Oral)
  • Skill Development and Practice
  • Follow-Up and Enrichment
    • Writing Activities
    • Drama Activities, reader’s theater
    • Integrated Curriculum Hands-on Projects
    • Response through personal reflection or literature circles
    • Minilessons
    • Podcast Topics
    • Additional Comprehension Strategy Lessons and Checks
    • Whole Class, Community, or Family Activity
    • Reading Related Stories or Other Genres
    • Links to Related Web Sites

Modifying Basal Lessons:

  • Personalize reading instruction
  • Students, as individuals and students of the social classroom play a large role in modifying the lesson
  • ELL, those reluctant to read, gifted, face developmental challenges, or other challenges, benefit from modified instruction geared toward reaching these students.

Evaluating Reading Materials for Instruction:

Baseline questions to consider for the process-

  1. What is the overall philosophy of the program? How is reading discussed in the teacher’s guide?
  2. What kind of learning environment does the program recommend? Is it child-centered? Teacher-centered? Literature-centered? Skills-based? Scientific?
  3. Describe the emergent literacy program in detail. How does it provide for communication between school and home?
  4. Describe the instructional program in detail. How are lessons structured to teach phonemic awareness, word identification, vocabulary, reading, fluency, comprehension, writing?
  5. Describe the literature of the program. Are the selections in unabridged form? Are different genres included? Is there a strong presence of nonfiction text? How culturally diverse is the literature?
  6. How well does the program integrate across the curriculum? In what ways is assessment connected to daily instruction? What opportunities are there for connections between the various language arts?



Chapter 14: Making the Transistion to Content Area Texts


Readability: The relative accessibility or difficulty of a text. Sentence length and word difficulty are among the elements used in formulas that assign grade-level readability scores for text materials.

Textmaster Roles: Roles similar to those used in literature circles, but are used here for reading textbook material.

Idea Sketches: Graphic organizers that students complete in small groups as they read textbook material.

Trade Books: Literature and informational books widely available in bookstores; used by teachers to supplement or replace sole dependence on textbooks in reading or content area instruction.

Literature Across the Curriculum: Weaving an array of literature into meaningful and relevant instructional activities with the context of content area study.

Literature Web: Any graphic device that illustrates the relationships among the major components in a unit of study.

Narrative Informational Texts: Books in which the author typically tells a story that conveys factual information.

Expository Information Books: Books that contain information that typically follows specific text structures such as description, sequence, cause and effect, comparison and contrast, and problem solving.

Mixed-Text Informational Books: Sometimes referred to as combined-text trade books; stories are narrated and factual information surrounds the story.

Previewing: Establishing purposes and priorities before reading to help students become aware of the goals of a reading assignment.

Skimming: Involves intensive previewing of the reading assignment to see what it will be about.

Organizer: A frame of reference established to prepare children conceptually for ideas to be encountered in reading.

Anticipation Guides: A series of written or oral statements for individual students to respond to before reading text assignments.

Point-of-View Guides: An instructional activity for supporting comprehension in which readers approach a text selection from various perspectives or points of view.

Idea Circles: A literature circle in which readers engage in discussions of concepts they have been exploring in trade books and other types of texts.

Curriculum-Based Reader’s Theater: A strategy in which students work in small groups to create sections of content text in the form of an entertaining play.

i-Charts: A chart that helps students research, organize, and integrate information from multiple text sources.

Internet Inquiry: An instructional strategy designed to help students engage in research on the Internet base on the questions they raise or their interests in various topics of study.

WebQuest: An electronic model in which Internet inquiry is organized to support student learning.


Chapter 12: Bringing Children and Literature Together


Literature-Based Reading Program: Reading program based on instructional practices and student activities using literature, books, novels, short stories, magazines, plays, and poems that have not been rewritten for instructional purposes.

Community of Readers: The conceptualization of children, in alliance with their friends and teacher, working together in classrooms where school reading imitates adult reading; an effect created by literature-based reading programs.

How to Hook Students on Books:

  • Immerse Students in Literature
  • Use Instructional Time to Show the Value of Reading
  • Help Students Find and Share Books They Want to Read

How to Choose Classroom Literature: 

  • Read and enjoy children’s books yourself
  • Read children’s books with a sense of involvement
  • Read a variety of book types
  • Read books for a wide variety of ability levels
  • Share how your students response to particular books with other teachers or other university students
  • Start by reading several books of good quality

Determining Good Literature:

  • The collection needs to contain modern, realistic literature as well as more traditional literature
  • The collection needs to contain books that realistically present different ethnic and minority groups and nontraditional families as well as mainstream Americans
  • The collection needs to contain books with different types of themes and books of varying difficulty
  • The collection needs to include nonfiction

Multicultural Literature: 

  • Cultural accuracy
  • Richness in cultural details
  • Authentic dialogue and relationships
  • In-depth treatment of cultural issues
  • Inclusion of members of a minority group for a purpose

Designing a Classroom Library: 50% more students will read having a classroom library than those without one. Multiple subject matter needs to be considered. Think of the physical location of the library within the classroom. It should have a quiet area where students can read undisturbed.

Reading Aloud: Generally a group event in which literature is read orally.

Helping Students Choose Just Right Books:

Core Books: Collection of books that forms the nucleus of a school reading program at each grade level, usually selected by a curriculum committee.

Literature Circles: Discussion or study group based on a collaborative strategy involving self-selection of books for reading each group consists of students who independently selected the same book.

Reading Workshop: Method, introduced by Nancie Atwell, for integrating the language arts around literature through an organizational framework that allows readers to demonstrate reading strategies by responding to books and sharing meaning with their peers.

Roles in Literature Circles: 

  • Discussion Director
  • Literary Luminary/Passage Master
  • Connector
  • Illustrator
  • Summarizer
  • Vocabulary Enricher/Word Wizard
  • Travel Tracer
  • Investigator/Researcher

Responses to Literature:

  • Sparking Discussion with Book Talks
  • Engaging in Free Response
  • Exploring Response Options in Literature Journals

Read-Response Theory: The belief that responsibility for constructing textual meaning resides primarily with the reader and depends to a great extent on the reader’s prior knowledge and experience.


The organization of Mrs. Brooks’ classroom was out of this world. Although the video was brief, there were many ideas on how to make the most out of the room within our own classroom. Many of the techniques Mrs. Brooks utilized, I have seen in classrooms. The one idea she showed in her classroom was the GIGANTIC Word Wall. 

Much of the content in this video has been discussed in our classrooms. The one tip I gathered was at the end when the one character asks what do if they select a book which was too difficult. The response was something to remember, the other character said you can always come back to it, or have someone else read it to you. 

This video was interesting to me with how we were determining what is too difficult of a book. The idea was if there are 5 or more tricky words, it is too difficult. I don’t know if I agree with that. I am thinking that children will struggle with a majority of new words they encounter. I think the difficulty really lies in the strategy they use to decode the word and uncover what it is using strategies they have been taught.

Mr. Rick really showed me a couple of great takeaways from his video. One was when reading to the class and discussin character traits, how to have the class act out and really understand the emotions from the book to understand the character and make mental connections to the reading. Another takeaway was when Mr. Rick demonstrates a way to teach a one-on-one teaching with each child during their activities. He uses silent reading time as a way to confer with each student on what they are reading and have at least one teachable moment per day.


Chapter 11: Reading-Writing Connections


Relationships Between Reading And Writing And What The Research States: Reading and writing are learned together and should be taught together to keep pace with one another.

How To Create An Informal Writing Environment: Ideally best to provide as many reading and writing occasions to promote exposure to these activities.

Suggestions To Encourage Classroom Writing:

  1. Encourage student’s to write about their experiences and relative to their interests and needs.
  2. Develop sensitivity to good writing by reading poetry and literature to students.
  3. Invent ways to value what students have written.
  4. Guide the writing personally.
  5. Write stories and poetry of your own and share them with your students.
  6. Tie in writing with the entire curriculum.
  7. Start a writing center in your classroom.
  8. Create a relaxed atmosphere.


Dialogue Journal: A journal written as a conversation between child and teacher that emphasizes meaning while providing natural, functional experiences in both writing and reading.

Buddy Journal: Written conversations between children in a journal format; promotes students interaction, cooperation, and collaboration.

Key Pals: The electronic equivalent of pen pals.

Double-Entry Journals: A two-column journal format that gives students an opportunity to identify passages from texts and explore in writing why those passages are interesting or meaningful.

Reading Journals: A journal used in conjunction with literary texts. After a period of sustained reading, teachers use prompts to guide students’ written responses to the text.

Response Journals: A journal entry without a teacher prompt.

Writing Notebooks: Places where students can gather observations, thoughts, reactions, ideas, unusual words, pictures, and interesting facts for future writing.

Multigenre Projects: A paper that is a collection of genres that reflect multiple responses to a book, theme, or topic. Examples of genres are postcards, letters, posters, and comic strips.

Plot Scaffolds: An open-ended script in which students use their imaginations to create characters, a setting, a problem, and a solution.

Traditional Writing Process:

  • Brainstorm – What to write about
  • Draft – Put thoughts to paper
  • Revise – revise thoughts after receiving feedback
  • Edit – Search for errors
  • Publish

Writing Process According To Authors:

Brainstorming: Prereading activity that identifies a broad concept reflecting the main topic to be studied in an assigned reading and organizes students in small groups to generate a list of words related to the topic.

Writing Workshop: Classroom writing time during which students are given the structure and direction they need to understand, develop, or use specific writing strategies in planning and revising drafts.

Minilessons: A brief, direct instructional exchange between teacher and students to address specific, observed learning needs of students.

Group Share Sessions: Discussion period intended to help students reflect on the day’s work. As part of a writing workshop plan, the session focuses on specific writing concerns.

Guided Writing: An instructional framework in which teachers guide students as they write.

How To Use Technology To Teach Writing:

  • Word Processing: Using computers to create and publish texts.
  • Electronic Texts/Audiobooks/e-Books: Texts that are created and read on a computer screen.
  • Desktop Publishing: Using software programs that combine word processing with layout and other graphic design features that allow children and teachers to integrate print and graphics on a page.
  • Multimedia Authoring: Using software programs that allow students to produce text, color pictures, sound, and video in combination.



National Evaluation Series – Wisconsin
Website found providing resources for FORT practice.

Chapter 10: Reading Comprehension


Scaffolding Instruction: Instruction in which teachers model strategies step by step and provide guided practice, followed by independence practice and application.

Literal Questions: Questions that are based on explicitly stated information to the text.

Inferential Questions: Questions in which the reader uses background knowledge and information from the text.

Evaluative Questions: Questions that focus on making a judgement about what is read.

Active Comprehension: Using prior knowledge, schemata, and metacognition to construct textual meaning; fostered by using questioning during reader.

ReQuest: Reciprocal questioning that encourages students to ask their own questions about material they have read.

QAR’s: Question-answer relationships – A comprehension strategy that enhances children’s ability to answer comprehension questions by teaching them how to find the information they need to respond.

Reciprocal Teaching: An instructional strategy that builds readers’ awareness of an expertise in the use of various comprehension skills and strategies.

Think-Alouds: A comprehension strategy in which students talk about their thoughts as they read aloud.

Story Map: An analysis of a story’s organizational elements; used to strengthen instructional decisions.

General and Specific Comprehension Questions: 

  • Literal Questions
  • Inferential Questions
  • Evaluative Questions

Activities to Build Schema for Stories:

  • Read, Tell, and Perform Stories in Class
  • Show Relationships Between Story Parts
  • Reinforce Story Knowledge Through Instructional Activites

Macrocloze Stories: Stories given to students with passages deleted from the text; students read the stories and discuss the missing text either orally or in writing.

Scrambled Stories: Stories separated into pars and jumbled; students read the stories and put them back in order.

Story Frames: Skeletal paragraphs represented by a sequence of spaces tied together with transition words and connectors signaling lines of thought; frames can emphasize plot summary, setting, character analysis, character comparison, and problem.

Circular Story Map: a visual representation using pictures to depict the sequence of events leading to the problem in a story.

DR-TA: Directed Reading-Thinking Activity – An activity that builds critical awareness of the reader’s role and responsibility in interacting with the text through the process of predicting, verifying, judging, and extending thinking about text material.

KWL: (What do you know? What do you want to find out? What did you learn?) Three-step teaching model designed to guide and motivate children as they read to acquire information from expository texts.

Discussion Webs: A strategy used in cooperative learning that requires students to explore both sides of issues during postreading discussions before drawing conclusions.

Story Impressions: Prereading strategy that helps students anticipate what stories could be about, using content fragments to make predictions.

Text Connections: A comprehension strategy in which students are encouraged to share how texts relate to themselves, to other texts, or to the world.

Text to Self: Students make a personal connection the the reading.

Text to Text: Students make a connection from a previous text.

Text to World: Students make inferences to the text and the real world.


Dimensions of Transactional Strategies Instruction:

Strategy Instructional Dimension
Gradual Release Dimension
Collaboration Dimension
Interpretive Discussion Dimension

Question Prompts for ReQuest:

What does ______________ remind you of?
Do you know someone like the character ______________?
Do you agree with what __________________ did in the story?
What do you think will happen next in the story?
Why do you think the author chose _____________ as the setting?
Can you think of a different way to describe the action in this part of the story?
What do you picture in your mind when you read this part of the story?

Chapter 9: Vocabulary Knowledge and Concept Development


Aptitude Hypothesis: The belief that vocabulary and comprehension reflect general intellectual ability.

Knowledge Hypothesis: The suggestion that vocabulary and comprehension reflect general knowledge rather than intellectual ability.

Instrumental Hypothesis: Belief in a casual chain between vocabulary knowledge and comprehension; that is, if comprehension depends in part on the knowledge of word meanings, vocabulary instruction should influence comprehension.

Vocabulary: The panoply of words we use, recognize, and respond to in meaningful acts of communication.

Components of Vocabulary:

  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • Writing

Principles to Guide Vocabulary Instruction:

  • Principle 1: Select words that children will encounter while reading literature and content material – Comprehension is impacted when a child struggles with a majority of the vocabulary in a given title.
    • Key Words
    • Useful Words
    • Interesting Words
    • Vocabulary-Building Words
  • Principle 2: Teach words in relation to other words – Children are more drawn into the learning and need to apply background knowledge and experience to detect similarities and differences.
  • Principle 3: Teach students to relate words to their background knowledge – Think of how you can teach the student the conceptual idea by anchoring to what the student may already know.
  • Principle 4: Teach words in prereading activities to activate knowledge and use them to postreading discussion, response, and retelling – Introduce new terms before reading and use the new vocabulary to discuss after the text.
  • Principle 5: Teach words systematically and in depth – Do not simply have the student learn the definition of the word by the book, but rather deeper understanding of the words, application, and their own meaning.
  • Principle 6: Awaken interest in and enthusiasm for words – Enthusiasm shown by the teacher can be contagious in the interest of the learner. Make vocabulary an engaging and enjoyable lesson to peak interest.

Strategies for Vocabulary and Concept Development:

  • Relating experiences to vocabulary learning
  • Using context for vocabulary growth
  • Developing word meanings
  • Classifying and categorizing words
  • Developing word meanings through stories and writing
  • Developing independence in vocabulary learning

Synonyms: Words similar in meaning to other words.

Antonyms: Words opposite in meaning to other words.

Think Sheets: List of questions used to elicit a responses about texts for discussion purposes.

Categorization: Critical manipulation of words in relation to other words through the labeling of ideas, events, or objects.

Multiple-Meaning Words: Words for which readers must rely on context in order to determine meaning.

Word Sorts: Vocabulary development through categorization activities with groups of words.

Concept Circles: A vocabulary activity in which students identify conceptual relationships among words and phrases that are partitioned within a circle.

Semantic Mapping: A strategy that shows readers and writers how to organize important information.

Analogy: A comparison of two similar relationships.

Paired-Word Sentence Generation: Teaching strategy that asks students to take two related words and create one sentence that correctly demonstrates and understanding of the words and their relationship to one another.

Predictogram: A strategy that develops students’ meaning vocabulary through the use of story elements.

Self-Selection Strategy: A strategy that helps students monitor their own vocabulary growth by selecting unknown vocabulary words.

Word Knowledge Rating: A strategy that helps students develop an awareness of how well they know vocabulary words by rating themselves on their knowledge of words based on a continuum.


Chapter 8: Reading Fluency


Fluency: The ability to read easily and well.

Effective Fluency Instruction: 

  • Instruction – Teaching of basic skills, phonemic awareness and phonics.
  • Practice – Use decodable texts and other independent-level reading to strengthen the sounds and spelling.
  • Assessment –

Mediated Word Identification: Word identification which may take longer to retrieve from long-term memory.

Automaticity: The automatic, almost subconscious recognition and understanding of written text.

Prosody: The expression, timing, accuracy, and intonation of fluent reading.

Predictable Text: Literature that is distinguished by familiar or predictable characteristics of setting, story line, language patterns, or rhyme and consequently can promote fluency.

Types of Predictable Texts:

  • Chain or Circular Story: End of the books ties to the beginning.
  • Cumulative Story: Each new event recalls previous events from the story.
  • Pattern Story: Scenes repeat throughout the story.
  • Question and Answer: Same or similar questions are repeated throughout the story.

Strategies to Assist with Fluency:

Choral Reading: Oral reading, often of poetry, that makes use of various voice combinations and contrasts to create meaning or highlight the tonal qualities of a passage.

Echo Reading: The child and parent, or teacher, read together. The child will listen to a part of the story, and then repeat what was read to them.

Fluency-Orientated Reading Instruction (FORI): Whole group instruction with a grade-level basal reader. Books is read to the student by the teacher and followed up with a brief description of the story and check for understanding.

Readers’ Theater: The oral presentation of drama, prose, or poetry by two or more readers.

Repeated Readings: Reading short passages of text more than once, with different levels of supports, to develop rapid, fluent oral reading.

Paired Readings: Structured collaborative work involving pairs of children of the same or different reading ability to foster reading fluency.

Fluency Development Lesson (FDL): An instructional framework designed to develop oral reading fluency. It incorporates the use of various repeated reading techniques such as choral reading and paired reading routines.

Automated Reading: A reading approach in which students listen individually to audiorecorded stories while reading along with the written text.

Oral Recitation Lesson (ORL): Lesson that makes use of direct instruction and student practice, including reading in chorus, as a means of incorporating fluency into daily reading instruction.

Support Reading Strategy: A strategy designed to develop the ability to read fluently by combining several instructional elements.

Cross-Age Reading: A routine for fluency development that pairs upper-grade readers with younger readers.

What Parents Can Do At Home:

  1. Read More – Spend more time reading with your child. Whether you read to them, they read to you, or share reading duties. The more exposure to print, the better.
  2. Read Aloud – Read aloud to your child while they follow along with the written text.
  3. Reread Familiar Texts – Read, and reread, books your children are most interested in. Even if you are not excited for the book, your child’s enjoyment of the book helps with developing fluency.
  4. Echo-Read – Read short parts of the book and have the child echo the reading back to you.
  5. Use Predictable Books – Read books that contain predictable, rhyming patterns so the child can “hear” the sound of fluent reading.

Assessing Fluency: Best way is to listen to the reader orally and maintain records of assessment. 

Reading Rate: The number of correct words per minute assesses both accuracy and automaticity.

WPM or WCPM: WPM (Words per Minute) are the number of words read per minute. WCPM (Word Correct per Minute) are the number of words read per minute, minus the number of errors made in that minute time.



This chapter has covered many wonderful strategies that can be incorporated in the classroom, our tutoring lessons, and even at home. The student I am currently tutoring does struggle at times with fluency and this chapter has provided many great ideas that I will be able to practice in developing their fluency of reading. I will be looking to institute the echo reading strategy and repeated reading strategy as a start and observe its effectiveness for the next couple sessions with the student.

Chapter 7


Word Attack: Term similar to decoding.

Word Analysis: Term similar to decoding.

Word Recognition: Process that involves immediate identification. Sometimes referred to as sight-word recognition or sight vocabulary.

Decoding: The conscious or automatic processing and translating of the printed work into speech.

Phonics: The act of translating print into speech.  A tool to attack the pronunciation of words. Instructional strategies used to bringing attention to parts of words.

Prealphabetic Phase: 1st Phase in the developmental phases in the child’s ability to read words. Children are able to remember a distinctive, purely visual cue. Example: Tall posts,, as in the word yellow.

Parial Alphabetic Phase: 2nd Phase in the developmental phases in the child’s ability to read words. Children can remember limited matches between salient letter sounds. Example: matches between “k” and “n” only. k-itte-n.

Full Alphabetic Phase: 3rd Phase in the developmental phases in the child’s ability to read words. Children can remember matches between all letters and sounds. Example: 4 letters units matched to 4 sound units. CLOCK –> klok.

Consolidated Alphabetic Phase: 4th Phase in the developmental phases in the child’s ability to read words. Children can remember matches between multiletter units and symbolic units. Example: Matching onset and rime units. CR ATE –> kr at.

Onsets: The initial part of a word (a consonant blend, or digraph) that precedes the vowel.

Rimes: The part of the letter pattern in a word that includes the vowel and any consonants that follow; also called a phonogram or word family.

Analytic Phonics: The whole to part approach to word study in which the student is first taught a number of sight words and then relevant phonic generalizations, which are subseqhently applied to other words.

  1. Observe a list of known words with a common letter-sound relationship, for example, the initial consonant “t”.
  2. Begin questioning about how the words look and sound the same and how they are different.
  3. Elicit the common letter-sound relationship and discuss.
  4. Have the learners phrase a generalization about the letter-sound relationship — for example, all the words start with the sound of the letter “t”. The sound of the letter “t” is /t/ as in TOP.

Synthetic Phonics: A part to whole phonics approach to reading instruction in which the student learns the sounds represented by letters and letter combinations, blends these sounds together to pronounce new words, and finally identifies which phonics generalizations apply.

  1. Teach the letter names.
  2. Teach the sound or sounds each letter represents.
  3. Drill on the letter-sound relationship until rapidly recognized. Discuss rules and form generalizations about relationships that usually apply to words (when vowels are short or long, for example).
  4. Teach the blending of separate sounds to make a word.
  5. Provide the opportunity to apply blending to unknown words.

Linguistic Instruction: A traditional approach to teaching phonics popular in the 1960’s.

Decodable Text: Text that is written with a large number of words that have phonetic similarities; there is typically a match between the text and the phonics elements that the teacher has taught.

Digraphs: A combination of letters to produce a sound.

Consonant Blends: Two or more consonants that form a sound.

Dipthongs: Two vowels together that produce one sound.

Syllables: A sound formed by multiple letters.

Analogy-Based Instruction: Sometimes referred to as analogic phonics, analogy-based instruction teaches children to use onsets and rimes they already know to help decode unknown words.

Developmental Stages of Word Learning and Spelling:

  1. Emergent
  2. Letter Name – Alphabetic
  3. Within Word
  4. Syllables and Affixes
  5. Derivational

Embedded Phonics Instruction: Often called holistic, meaning-centered instruction, embedded phonics teaches phonics within the context of stories that make sense to the children.

Phonograms: Letter clusters that help form word families or rhyming words; see also rime.

Making Words: Flip books makes students aware of their word-making capability when they substitute different consonants at the beginning of a rime. To engage children in the process of making words, consider these steps.

Word Walls: Words compiled on sheets of shelf paper hung on the wall of a classroom. Word walls are used by teachers to engage students in word study for a variety of instructional purposes.

High-Frequency Words: Words that appear often in printed material.

Cloze Sentences: Used to help reinforce vocabulary. Parts of a sentence are removed for students to solve.

Cross-Checking: Using letter-sound information and meaning to identify words.

Self-Monitoring: Being aware of miscues, the pronunciation of unknown words, and comprehension of processes during reading to develop the ability to correct oneself.

Structural Analysis: A word recognition skill that involves identifying words in meaningful units such as prefixes, suffixes, and root words. Structural analysis also includes being able to identify inflected endings, compound words, and contractions.

Morpheme: The smallest meaningful unit of a word. For example, /un/ is a morpheme that means not.

Inflected Endings: Suffixes that change the tense or degree of a word. Examples include /s/, /es/, /ies/, /d/, /ed/, /er/, /ier/, /est/.



Chapter 6


High-Stakes Testing: The practice of using a single test score for making education-related or personnel decisions.

Authentic Assessment: A reading or writing task that look like real-life tasks, and students are primarily in control of the reading or writing task.

Retelling: An assessment in which students identify and discuss integral parts of a story.

Formative Assessment: An assessment that is used to gather information for teachers to adapt instruction to meet students’ needs.

Self-Assessment: An assessment in which students identify their strengths and weaknesses to help provide a plan for intervention.

Formal Assessments: A norm-referenced or criterion-referenced assessment. (Standardized tests)

Standardized Tests: Machine-scored instruments that sample reading performance during a single administration. Scores are useful in making comparisons among individuals or groups at a local, state, or national level.

Norms: Average scores of a sampling of students selected for testing according to factors such as age, sex, race, grade, or socioeconomic status; basis for comparing the performance of individuals or groups.

Reliability: Consistency of test results over time and administrations.

Validity: The accuracy with which a test measures what it is designed to measure – the most important characteristic of a test.


Diagnostic Test: Formal assessment intended to provide detailed information about individual students’ strengths and weaknesses.

Criterion-References Texts: Formal assessment designed to measure individual student achievement according to a specific criterion for performance (e.g., eight words out of ten spelled correctly.)

Informal Assessments: Informal measures of reading that yield useful information about student performance without comparisons to the performance of a normative population.

Informal Reading Inventory: An individually administered informal test, usually consisting of graded word lists, graded reading passages, and comprehension questions that assess how students orally and silently interact with print.

Independent Reading Level: The level at which that student reads fluently with excellent comprehension. The independent level has also been called the recreational reading level because not only will students be able to function on their own, but they also often have high interest in the material.

Instructional Reading Level: The level at which the student can make progress in reading with instructional guidance. This level has been referred to as the teaching level because the material to be read must be challenging but not too difficult.

Frustrational Reading Level: The level at which the student is unable to pronounce many of the words or is unable to comprehend the material satisfactory. This is the lowest level of reading at which the reader is able to understand. The material is too difficult to provide a basis for growth.

Miscues: Mistake made during reading.

Miscue Analysis: Informal assessment of oral reading errors to determine the extent to which readers use and coordinate graphic-sound, syntactic, semantic information.

Running Record: Method for marking miscues of beginning readers while they read.

Analyzing Running Record: Calculate the words read correctly, analyze the student’s errors, and identify patterns of errors. In calculating percentage; total errors divided by total number of words, and multiply by 100, subtract from 100.

Words Per Minute: An assessment in which readers read aloud for 1 minute from materials used in their reading lessons. The teacher notes words read incorrectly. The assessment tracks changes in reading rates and accuracy over time and assess the appropriateness of the text’s difficulty.

DIBELS: Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills – An assessment that includes a series of oral reading skill assessment. Short measures are used to monitor early literacy skills and provide feedback to inform instruction.

Portfolios: A compilation of an individual student’s work in reading and writing, devised to reveal literacy progress as well as strengths and weaknesses.

Anecdotal Notes: Brief, written observations of revealing behavior that a teacher considers significant to understanding a child’s literacy learning.

Checklist: A list of categories presented for specific diagnostic purposes.

Interviewing: Periodic communication with individual students to assess reading interests and attitudes, self-perceptions, and understanding of the language-learning process.


Chapter 5


Emergent Literacy: Children’s literacy learning conceptualized as developmental, with no clear beginning or end, rather than as proceeding in distinct sequence. Thus children begin to develop literacy through everyday experiences with print long before they enter school.

Scaffolding Instruction: Instruction in which teachers model strategies step by step and provide guided practice, followed by independent practice and application.

Storybook Experiences: Read-alouds, readalongs, interactive reading, interactive writing, rereadings of favorite texts, and independent reading and writing.

Interactive Writing: Shared writing activity in which children are invited to volunteer to write parts of a story.

Linguistic Awareness: Understanding the technical terms and labels needed to talk and think about reading.

Print Awareness: The ability to identify the use of print for the English language. The idea that print is written and read from left to right and spaces fall behind two words and structure of the printed material.  

Concept of Print: The ability to identify how to approach printed material. For example: Understand how to open a book cover and read the text from left to right. How to turn pages

Assessing Concept of Print: One can assess printed material by asking questions regarding a passage. For example: You can ask for the student to identify a sentence, how many words are found in the sentence. 

Phonemes: Minimal sound units that can be represented in written language. 

Alphabetic Principle: Principle suggesting that letters in the alphabet map to phonemes, the minimal sound units represented in written language.

Phonics: Using phonemic awareness to teach reading and writing of the English language.

Phonemic Awareness: An understanding that speech is composed of a series of written sounds; a powerful predictor of children’s later reading achievement. 

Phonological Awareness: The ability to hear, recognize, and play with the sounds in our language. It involves hearing the sounds of language apart from meaning.

Alliteration: A group of words that begin with the same initial sound.

Rimes: The part of the letter pattern in a word that includes the vowel and any consonants that follow; also called a phonogram or word family.

Phonological Awareness Continuum:

Orthographic System:

Phoneme Isolation: The process of identifying sounds from within words. Whether that be the sound at the start, middle, or end of a word.

Phoneme Identity: The process of being able to identify sounds, that are the same, within other words. 

Phoneme Categorization: The process of having a student identify the word which contains a different sound from a list of a couple words which sound the same.

Blending: The technique of sounding out the sounds within a word and progressing to putting the sounds together, faster, so the word is found.

Segmenting Beginning and Ending Sounds: Segmenting is the use of breaking out the sounds within words. This skill can be helpful if a sound is found to be difficult, but when the student sounds out the rest, they are able to decipher the tricky sound because of there exposure to the word prior.

Phoneme Deletion, Addition, and Substitution: The process of creating words by adding, deleting, or substituting a sounds from a word. For example: You have the word “top,” or a picture of a top, and before the image there is the “s” sound and the student puts them together to form the word “stop.”

Elkonin Boxes: A strategy of teaching phonological awareness with boxes that are used to segment sounds of a word.

Phonemic Segmentation: The ability to isolate and identify sounds in words. 


I will begin tutoring a second grade student, beginning Wednesday. I have learned where the student has been assessed in terms of reading level. I have materials prepared through the website which coincide with the students current reading level. I will be conducting an assessment of his reading through a running record, comprehension check, and also a fluency test. 

More to come upon completion of the assessment on Wednesday.


The importance of reading nonfiction books to the class. In the past, fiction was more prevalent in the classroom, but research has shown the growing significance of nonfiction books, such as;
– Increase vocabulary
– Expansion of background knowledge
– High interest to children
– Connection to other content
– Allows students to think about the world around them

Instructional goals met through storybook experiences:
– Motivate beginners to want to read and write
– Interest beginner to think about predicting, sharing, and extending personal meanings through listening and writing.
– Help build an understanding of writing/reading
– Teach to draw meaning from pictures and illustrations
– Teach directionality – Read left to right
– Learn alphabetic principles of written language
– Predict words which may come next
– Recognize words that are used frequently or students have an interest in

The use of observation to assess emerging literacy –
* Do children attend to the visual aspects of print? Are the students following along with the reading, and are they able to answer questions throughout the reading to confirm their listening.
* Do children use their intuitive knowledge of language? Can the child create a story from visual cues or pictures without using a conversation format, but an inventive story.
* Are children beginning to show signs of integrating visual and language cues? Can the child demonstrate they are following along with their own reading, that they can self-correct themselves, and follow with a finger pointer.
* Do children expect meaning from print? Does the child believe there is a message in the story.